Large Scale Industries in India, List of Large Scale Industries, Detailed Information, FAQs
Indian industries that come under the umbrella of large-scale industries in India are the cotton industry, tea industry, jute, cement, paper, engineering industry, food processing, information and electronic technology, and automobile industry.
List of Large Scale Industries in India:
- Cotton industry
- Tea industry
- Jute Industries
- Cement Industries
- Paper Industries
- Food Processing
- IT Industry
- Automobile Industry
Detailed Information Related to these Industries:
Large Scale Industries in India: Tea Industry
The tea industry is occupying a very important place in the Indian economy. It is also one of the traditional industries of the country. In the initial part of the 19th-century tea, the plantation has started in India by the British planters. In 1933 tea plantation was started in Assam. Therefore in 1938, India exported tea for the first time to England.
After that in 1965, some tea gardens were established in India with lie patronage of the Government. Later on, the tea industry started to expand under the patronage, ownership, and management of European merchants. In this way, more than 60 percent of the tea gardens established in India were under the ownership of European merchants.
भारतीय अर्थव्यवस्था में चाय उद्योग का बहुत महत्वपूर्ण स्थान है। यह भी देश के पारंपरिक उद्योगों में से एक है। 19वीं सदी की चाय के शुरूआती हिस्से में भारत में ब्रिटिश बागान मालिकों द्वारा वृक्षारोपण शुरू कर दिया गया है। 1933 में असम में चाय बागान शुरू किया गया था। इसलिए 1938 में भारत ने पहली बार इंग्लैंड को चाय का निर्यात किया।
The tea industry in India has been suffering from various problems like:
- Fluctuation in its price in the export market,
- The high unit cost of production,
- Too much dependence on the London Tea auction market,
- Poor quality,
- Increasing demand for the new averages both in the domestic and foreign markets and
- Increasing competition from other countries in the export market.
Thus, steps should be taken to increase the demand for tea both within and outside the country through quality improvement and vigorous campaigns. Thus, the government of India has taken certain steps to improve the condition of the tea industry in India.
- Drive to increase both internal and external demand for tea,
- Development of tea boards in various countries of the world for raising the volume of tea export through different schemes,
- Therefore Exemption from export duty and tax on tea, and
- An advancing loan from State Bank of India, Industrial Finance Corporation of India, State Financial Corporation of India, and NABARD.
Large Scale Industries in India: Jute Industry
The jute industry is one of the most important traditional industries in India. The Jute industry was established for the first time in India in the year 1885. The first power-driven jute mill was set up at Rishra, near Kolkata.
After that, a number of Jute mills began to set up near Kolkata just by the two sides of the Hoogly River. During 1930, i.e. during the period of the great depression, this industry had to face a serious setback. But during the Second World War, this industry had again reached its peak position.
At present there are 73 Jute mills in India with nearly 44,990 looms out of which only 70 units are in operation.
जूट उद्योग भारत में सबसे महत्वपूर्ण पारंपरिक उद्योगों में से एक है। भारत में पहली बार जूट उद्योग की स्थापना वर्ष 1885 में हुई थी। बिजली से चलने वाली पहली जूट मिल कोलकाता के पास रिशरा में स्थापित की गई थी।
उसके बाद, हुगली नदी के दोनों किनारों पर कोलकाता के पास कई जूट मिलें स्थापित होने लगीं। 1930 के दौरान यानि महामंदी के दौर में इस उद्योग को एक गंभीर झटके का सामना करना पड़ा था। लेकिन द्वितीय विश्व युद्ध के दौरान यह उद्योग फिर से अपने चरम पर पहुंच गया था।
The jute industry in India is suffering from numerous problems.
These problems are:
- Irregular and inadequate supply of raw materials,
- The problem of obsolete and worn-out plants and difficulties in their modernization,
- The higher unit cost of production leads to high prices,
- Fluctuation in the production leads to high prices and
- Increasing competition from synthetic substitute goods both in-home and foreign markets.
Considering the problems of the jute industry, proper steps should be undertaken to increase the degree of viability of this industry.
In the meantime, the Government of India has taken the following short-term steps:
- Re-introduction of cash-compensatory support for all varieties of jute goods exported since 1981;
- Advising the cement, fertilizer, and other industries to use only new gunny bags for packing; and
- Advancing additional credit to jute mills for purchasing raw jute from growers.
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Large Scale Industries in India: Cement Industry
Although cement manufacturing was started in Tamil Nadu as early as 1904 the systematic manufacturing of cement was started in 1914 by the India Cement Company Ltd. at Porbandar, Gujarat. In India, there are at present 124 large cement units and 300 mini cement plants.
The total installed capacity of these cement units is about 151.0 million tonnes. Total production of cement in the country also rose from a mere 2.7 million tonnes in 1950-51 to 14.3 million tonnes in 1970-71 and then to 51.7 million tonnes in 1991-92 and finally to 262.6 million tonnes in 2013-14. Total employment generation by the cement industry is more than 2 lakh.
The cement industry in India has been suffering from different problems.
- Under-utilization of production capacity due to drastic power cuts, coal shortages, lack of furnace oil, and inadequate availability of wagons;
- Cost rising and rigid pricing lead to low profitability;
- Therefore Partial control and dual pricing;
- Excessive burden of excise duty, lack of adoption of cost-efficient technology; and
- Unrealistic distribution policies are followed by the government.
In India, the sugar industry had its origin in 1903 when a sugar factory was established each in Bihar and Uttar Pradesh. Therefore in 1950-51, there were 138 sugar factories in India and their total production was only 11.34 lakh tonnes. In order to meet its growing demand, more and more sugar factories were established. As of 31st May 1988, there were 414 sugar factories in India with a licensed capacity of 10.4 million tonnes.
Out of this 386 factories were in operation. The sugar industry employs about 3.25 lakh workers besides generating indirect employment for 25 million sugarcane growers. Total production of sugar increased from 11.3 lakh tonnes in 1950-51 to 37.4 lakh tonnes in 1970-71 and then to 120.47 lakh tonnes in 1990-91 and finally to 282.0 lakh tonnes in 2006-07 and then again decreased to 245.5 lakh tonnes in 2013-14.
Bihar and U.P were the two largest producers of sugar-producing about 60 percent of sugar in 1960. But with the expansion of the industry in other states like Maharashtra, Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, and Karnataka, the share of production of Bihar and U.P. had declined from 28 percent in 1980 to 81 and the share of Maharashtra rose from 17 percent in 1960 to 40 percent in 1980-81. In the meantime, the government set up a Sugar.
The sugar industry of India has been suffering from various problems.
- Shortage in the supply of sugarcane,
- Cost escalation and unfavorable price conditions,
- Old and obsolete machinery and
- Above all, Faulty government policy lacks a long-term perspective that varied between complete control, partial controls, and decontrol.
The Paper industry is another important industry in the country. Since 1925 this industry was operated under protective tariffs and thus earned a huge profit regularly. This led to the rapid progress of this industry during the period of planning. India’s huge forest resources are providing raw materials to this industry in abundant quantity.
The total installed capacity of this paper industry gradually rose from 4 lakh tonnes in 1960-61 to 62 lakh tonnes in 2002-03. Again the total production of paper and paper board also increased from 1.16 lakh tonnes in 1950-51 to 7.55 lakh tonnes in 1970-71 and then to 20.88 lakh tonnes in 1990-91 and then to 41.30 lakh tonnes in 2011-12.
Total production of newsprints also rose from 0.4 lakh tonnes in 1960-61 to 3.1 lakh tonnes in 1992-93.
There are 652 industrial units producing paper and paper boards in the private sector at present, besides some public sector units run by Hindustan Paper Corporation. In 2012-13 there are 759 paper mills operating in the country both in the private and public sectors.
The paper industry in India has been suffering from various problems.
- High cost of production,
- Scarcity of raw materials,
- Problems with royalties and leases,
- Overcapacity and under-utilization of capacity,
- Growing sickness of small and medium paper units and
- The a serious shortfall in the production of newsprint.
FAQs on Large Scale Industries in India:
What are large-scale industries?
Industries that require huge infrastructure and manpower with an influx of capital assets are Large Scale Industries. In India, large-scale industries are the ones with a fixed asset of more than one hundred million rupees or Rs 10 crores.
What is a large-scale industry give an example?
A large-scale industry employs a large number of persons and consumes a vast quantity of power. Huge capital investment is needed. The iron and steel industry, textile industry, manufacture of heavy machinery, locomotives and railway rolling stock, automobiles, and shipbuilding are some examples of large-scale industry.
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